PROTEASOME RESEARCH TOOLS
The proteasome is a 60 subunit, highly conserved protease complex, representing the products of ~35 genes. It is composed of a 20S core and one or two 19S regulatory particles (26S). Most cellular proteins are marked for degradation by attachment of an ubiquitin chain, which leads to their rapid degradation by the 26S proteasome. The ubiquitin tag binds to the ‘lid’, a 19S particle, followed by disassembly of ubiquitin chains, protein unfolding and subsequent translocation into the central cavity of the 20S proteasome. The 19S proteasome contains 19 different proteins that have the ability to bind, deubiquitylate and unfold polyubiquitylated proteins. Unfolded proteins are further cleaved into short (3-15 amino acids) peptides.
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